In 1994, an international commission certified the eradication of endemic wild poliovirus from the Americas. Ongoing surveillance in formerly endemic Central and South American countries confirms that poliovirus transmission remains interrupted.
The incidence of communicable diseases is such that they are unlikely to prove a hazard for international travelers greater than that found in their own country. There are, of course, health risks, but in general, the precautions required are minimal.
Certain diseases occasionally occur, such as plague , rabies in wildlife, including bats, raccoons, foxes, and other wild animals. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, arthropod-borne encephalitis, and seasonal outbreaks of influenza . The comprehensive CDC Influenza site answers questions raised about this 2003-2004 influenza season. Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in southwestern United States and can occur in visitors to the area. Histoplasmosis is highly endemic, especially in the Mississippi, Ohio, and the St. Lawrence river valleys.
Rodent-borne hantavirus pulmonary syndrome has been identified, predominantly in the western states of the United States. Lyme disease is endemic in the northeastern United States, Mid-Atlantic, and the upper Midwest and the southwestern provinces of Canada. Occasional cases have been reported from the Pacific Northwest. Recently, cases of West Nile virus have occurred throughout North America. During recent years, the incidence of certain foodborne diseases, e.g., E. coli O157:H7 and salmonellosis, has increased in some regions. Although the risk of hepatitis A infection is considered low in the United States and Canada, outbreaks have occurred in some areas. Other hazards include poisonous snakes (please see Animal-Associated Hazards ), poison ivy, and poison oak. In the north, a serious hazard is the very low temperature in the winter.
In the United States, proof of immunization against diphtheria , measles , poliomyelitis, and rubella is now universally required for entry into school. In addition, the school entry requirements of most states include immunization against tetanus (49 states), pertussis (44 states), mumps (46 states), and hepatitis B (26 states). Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is not required for school entry but is required in 49 states for attendance in day care facilities. Because the incidence of reported hepatitis A is substantially higher in 11 states, mostly in the west, some states now require hepatitis A vaccination for school or day care entry.
Isolated cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE/mad cow disease) have been reported in Canada and the United States. For more information, see http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/bse/ and http://www.usda.gov .
See the Diseases page for more information on North American diseases such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
For information on recent U.S. outbreaks, please see the (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) .
Health Information on Specific States.Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana
For health information on traveling in Canada, please see Canada's Laboratory Centre for Disease Control , * which includes updates on current Canadian outbreaks.Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador Northwest Territories Nova Scotia Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon Territory
* Note: These sites are not CDC sites and will be opened in a new browser window. CDC is not responsible for the content of Web pages found at these links. Links to nonfederal organizations are provided solely as a service to our users. These links do not indicate an endorsement of these organizations by CDC or the federal government.Date: July 19, 2005